1. "Artificial Insemination of Fishes", Livebearers, #27, 1976.

2. "Xiphophorus To The Rescue", Livebearers, #134, 1994.

3. "Why It's So Difficult to Obtain Great Hi-Fins", Livebearers, #194, 2007.

4. "X. Birchmanni Hybrid Hi-fins", Livebearers, #199, 2008.

5. "Xiphophorus Interspecies Hybrids: The Marriage of Heaven and Hell" Tropical     

      Fish Hobbyist, October, 2009.

6. "Melanoma in Platies and Swordtails", Livebearers #224, 2014.



1. "Artificial Insemination of Livebearers", The First ALA Convention, 1976.

2. "Artificial Insemination of Livebearers", Central New York Aquarium Society 1993.

3. "Interspecies Hybrids and Fancy Swordtails: Beauty and the Beast", 2012 ALA Convention

4. "Artificial Insemination Workshop", 2012 ALA Convention


  A mature birchmanni/swordtail hifin with a  

  dorsal fin that resembles the long, flowing dorsal of the the original variatus (topsail) hifin.

A mature hifin swordtail male from the same cross. Dorsal fin branching is significant and the posterior rays of the dorsal are very long.
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Artificial Insemination


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2. Birchmanni Hi-fins  Read Article                            Bulletin of the American Livebearer Association,  #199, 2008.





























1. Why It's So Difficult to Obtain Great Hi-fins
 Bulletin of the American Livebearer Association,  #194, 2007.